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Friday, December 16, 2011

makalah filsafat hukum islam, the tension between fiqh and sufisme

1.   A piece of Fiqh
Fiqh epistemologically is knowing something and understanding it well. Fiqh terminologically is knowledge about syara’s laws in ‘amaliyah that obtained from thinking and interpretating from the detailed text source (dalail). Fiqh is the relation between not only Human and their God, but also human and other human.
2.   A piece of Sufi
Sufism or tasawuf is a knowledge to know how to clean the soul, purify the moral, constructing spiritual and physical, to reach the eternity happiness. In the history, Sufism was born in response to the lack of spiritualism in the wake of materialistic life lead by many in Islam. The thinking of Sufism rise in the Middle East at 8th centuries. Sufism is the relation between Human and their God.
Rabi’ah al-’Adawiyyah a sufism, said that Sufism is a effort to throw away everything to reach and choose Allah, so Allah will choose a sufi-doer on top of everything else. So she prefers and presents her love only to her God above anything else, so God will choose and love her.


3.   The Ulama’ opinion about fiqh and sufi
Much of the ulama’ in fiqh said that Sufism is the wrong pathway, because it can lead moslem to Musyrik, Wahdatul Wujud (the unity to God), and so on. But most of them said that if the moslems want to be the true moslem, he must do fiqh and Sufism together. For example imam maliki said that “who do fiqh without Sufism really become Fasiq. And who do Sufism without Fiqh is rally Zindiq, and who does the both of them together (fiqh and Sufism), he will walk on the truth.
4.   An example of the problem “Fiqh vs Sufi”
The command to Covering up the aurot / whole body for women moslem, by Wearing moslem’s wear and Jilbab for them. In the early islam, it’s done by the women moslem just to cover up their whole body by wearing them. But in our society now, I mean in Indonesia, the women moslem, much of them miss-understand the true meaning of wearing moslem’s wear and jilbab. They use it not just to cover up their aurot but they also use it to show up their fashion, so the result is, the miss-using of women moslem’s wear and jilbab, much women use jilbab but still showing up their hair, much of them wears the thight wear, or the moslem’s wear but it’s transparent, etc. This is unacceptable to sufi, but for fiqh, it’s no problem in some cases.
5.   Consept of Fiqh and Sufism
In Islam, we know that there are two aspects of “syari’ah”, the first is muamalah, and the second is ibadah. While muamalah refers to the rational thing or ta’aqquli, Ibadah refers to the irrational thing or ta’abbudi. Therefore moslem must not ask why he must pray to his God.
The problem “fiqh vs Sufi” much happens in the ibadah aspect, because in ibadah itself, there are two aspects, the physical and spiritual aspect. The physical aspect means the visible things that the moslem must do in doing ibadah, such as in praying, moslem must do takbirotul ihrom, ruku’ I’tidal and so on, if he miss one of them, his ibadah is not valid according to Fiqh.
In the other hand, the spiritual aspect of ibadah, according to the Sufism, is the invisible thing that the moslem must do in doing ibadah, such as focusing the mind only in the God while praying, this is also called as Akhlaq or morality to the God. 
6.   My Analysis
So, to complete the ibadah, these two aspects must be done together. 

         
 

References
Djamil, Fathurrahman. Filsafat Hukum Islam. (Jakarta: Logos Wacana Ilmu). 1997.


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